Archive for category Java

Difference in App and Web Server

Here is a very good article describing difference between application server and web server.

In another article, we can see what differentiates a full fledged Java EE application from a Java Web application.

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Method Overloading Ambiguity Problem

While going through an article about method overriding in OOP, I stumbled upon an ambiguity problem in overriding.

Here is the java code I wrote to test it:

public class OverLoadingTest {

static void testOverload(int i,double d) {
System.out.println("testOverload 1: int, double");
}

static void testOverload(double d,int i) {
System.out.println("testOverload 2: double,int");
}

public static void main(String[] args) {

testOverload(2,3.5);
testOverload(2.5,3);
testOverload(2,3); // Compilation error:  The method testOverload(int, double) is ambiguous for the type OverLoadingTest
  }
}

In the third call testOverload(2,3), there will be a compilation error, because:

First argument 2 is int, so java compiler will decide to call the method testOverload(int,double) because its first argument is int, so it is better match than .testOverload(double,int)

Second argument 3 is also int, so java compiler will decide to call the method testOverload(double,int) because its second argument is int, so it is better match than testOverload(int,double)

As compiler will not be able to decide the right overloaded version for call, compilation error occurs.

Happy Coding !

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toLowerCase() is Locale Based

I have found this very interesting and informative post for Java developers. Many Java developers may not know that toLowerCase() and toUpperCase() methods of java.lang.String class are Locale based. Have a look here at javadocs for these methods.

toLowerCase() internally calls toLowerCase(Locale locale). Same is the case for toUpperCase().

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Reading rss feed using java (JSP Taglib)

We can read RSS (Real Simple Syndication) feeds and publish them on our web page using JSP(Java Server Pages) tag library. Sun provides a rss taglib that can be used in JSP. It is extremely simple to use. You just need to have basic knowledge of JSP and HTML.

So, how to do that? First you need to download the tag library file (rssutils.tld, rssutils.jar) from Sun’s website. Here is the url to download it. Put the files rssutils.tld and rssutils.jar in WEB-INF/lib directory of your web application.
After that, choose a blog or website who publishes its rss feeds to users, and get the url of its rss feed. In below example, I have used the rss feed url of this blog. Please find the attached file here and save it with .jsp extension (rssTest.jsp)
You can use tag also to read content in a loop.
For a small tutorial on rss taglib, go here

To know what RSS is, go here

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enum as a class

Here I have compared enum with a class. In java, enums are like classes. What I have done here is, if we have to write a class that works like en enum, how can we do it. Though it is not of practicle use,what I have tried is to make the concept clear about enums.By comparing enum with a class, we can understand how enums work.

Here DayEnum is a enum and DayClass is class for that enum.

enum DayEnum {
SUNDAY, MONDAY
}

class DayClass {
String value;
public DayClass (String str)
{
value=str;
}

static DayClass SUNDAY, MONDAY;
static
{
SUNDAY = new DayClass("SUNDAY");
MONDAY = new DayClass("MONDAY");
}
}

public class Test
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
DayClass dayClass = DayClass.SUNDAY;
DayEnum dayEnum = DayEnum.SUNDAY;
System.out.print("dayClass "+dayClass.value+" \n dayEnum "+dayEnum);
}
}

Here SUNDAY, MONDAY are similar to static objects of Day if Day were a class.

We use enum as:
DayEnum day = DayEnum.SUNDAY;

enums are like constants. To simulate that, I have used value in DayClass. So every object of DayClass has an integer value associated with it.

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Java Good Practices

Here is an article on java good practices.Have a look!

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Private Fields of Reference Type

Hi, today I stumbled upon a strange problem while wriring some java code.
There is a class with a private field of reference type, say an ArrayList. Now,what is the use of private fields? They are used so that they can not be modified from outside the class like public fields. General practice is to provide getter methods in the class to return the values of private fields.It goes fine with the primitive type variables and Strings(because Strings are immutable). But when the field is of reference type, we can still change its value.Have a look at the code:

import java.util.*;

class Aclass
{

private ArrayList list;
private String s= "My string";

public Aclass()
{
list= new ArrayList();
list.add("Hello");
}

public ArrayList getList()
{
return list;
}

public String getString()
{
return s;
}
}

public class TestPrivate
{

public static void main(String args[])
{
Aclass ob= new a();
ArrayList alist= ob.getList();
System.out.println(l2);
alist.add("Hi");
ArrayList anotherList= ob.getList();
System.out.println(anotherList);

String s2= ob.getString();
System.out.println(s2);
s2="changed";
String s3= ob.getString();
System.out.println(s3);
}
}

When you run this code,the output is:
[Hello]
[Hello, Hi]
My string
My string

You can see that content of list has been changed, but for string, they are not changed.So you can change the list object even if it is private.It is because the getList() method returns the reference to the same list object, so we can modify the list even if it is private.Now if you think that it is some loophole or bug of java,the you are wrong.It is just a simple basic concept of reference type variables.

Now, what should you do to avoid this thing. You have to modify the getList() method so that it returns the clone of list, not the actual list object.Here is the solution:

public ArrayList getList()
{
return (ArrayList) list.clone();
}

clone() will return the clone of object, not the actual list. Return type of clone() is Object, so we have to typecast it to ArrayList. Any modification done from the reference returned by this method will not change the actual one.For more information on clone() method,
go here.

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Problem With clone() if Object Has a Reference Type Attribute

You might have used the clone() method of Object class to get a clone of an object.But have you ever faced a problem if your object has reference type attributes? Well, I have, and thats what I am going to discuss in this post.
A class can have two types of class level variables,primitive type (as int,float) and reference type(as List).Here is an example:

class AClass
{
int i; //primitive type
List alist; //reference type
}
For more on types, click here

Well, lets return on the original topic.When we make a clone of an object, the primitive type variables are copied in the new clone object, but for the reference type variables,only the reference is copied, not the original instance.For example, if we create the clone of above class’s object,there will be only one List object, and both object will have a reference to this.Here is what I tried:

public class ClassToClone {
ArrayList list;
public ClassToClone(ArrayList list)
{
this.list=list;
}

protected Object clone()
{
try{
return super.clone();
}
catch(CloneNotSupportedException e)
{
return null;
}
}
}

To test it:
public class TestClone {
public static void main(String args[])
{
ClassToClone c1,c2;
ArrayList arraylist= new ArrayList();
arraylist.add("Hello");
c1= new ClassToClone(arraylist);
c2 = (ClassToClone)c1.clone();
c1.list.add("Hi"); //change contents of the list of c1
System.out.print(c1.list.toString());
System.out.print(c2.list.toString()); // prints the list of both objects
}
}

When you run this program, you will see that on changing the list of c1, list of c2 is also changed and they both have the same content.
To avoid this problem, you have to explicitly clone the reference type variables. In ClassToClone, replace clone() method by this:

protected Object clone()
{
try{
ClassToClone aobj = (ClassToClone)super.clone();
aobj.s = (ArrayList)list.clone();
//explicit call to clone() for arraylist
return aobj;

}
catch(CloneNotSupportedException e)
{
return null;
}
}

Here we have explicitly cloned the arraylist.Now a new list will be created for clone object.Now changes done in c1.list do not reflect in c2.list.You can try this by yourself.But remember,clone() can be called only if the class implements Cloneable interface, otherwise we get CloneNotSupportedException.Here class ArrayList implements this interface.
Here and here is a great article to read on object cloning.

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Cloning of Objects Using clone() in Java

java.lang.Object class provides a native method clone(). Calling this method on your object will return a clone of that object.”Clone” here means what in normal world the word “clone” means. A clone object is another object having same attribute values as the original object.Here is the how to do cloning of objects:

public class ClassToClone implements Cloneable {
int i;
public ClassToClone(int i)
{
this.i=i;
}
protected Object clone()
{
try
{
return super.clone();
}
catch(CloneNotSupportedException e)
{
return null;
}
} //end of clone method
}//end of class

clone() in Object has protected access. So we have to override the clone() and call super.clone() from it(As Object is superclass of every class). To ensure that our class is cloneable, i.e. it supports cloning functionality, it has to implement java.lang.Cloneable interface.Cloneable inteface does not have any method inside it.It is just a markup interface, used to tell other classes that our class supports cloning.
Now a small note on how it works.When clone() of Object class is called on an object, a new object is created of that class and all the attribute’s values are copied from original to new object.
Now because these two objects are different,calling (obj1==obj2) will give false.
Here and here is a great article about object cloning.

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“Code Too Large” problem in java

Today while browsing through the internet, I found a very strange thing. I am sure it will be a very new and unknown fact for most of the java programmers, even the well experienced ones. The reason is because while working on a project, problem of this type does not occur very often. Now what kind of problem am I talking about? Well, most of you must have had a slight idea by looking at the title of the post. It says something when we have written a very large code and the compiler produces the error. Here is the snapshot of what I tried myself after reading this thing on internet:

C:\Documents and Settings\chirag.jain\Desktop>javac LargeCode.java
LargeCode.java:3: code too large
void largeMethod()
1 error

So does the java compiler enforces any limitation on the size of the code? The answer is yes, and that boundary is 65536 Bytes. This limitation is not on the size of whole file, but on a single method.
Now lets us delve a bit in the details. When we compile a java source file(.java file), compiler produces the byte code in .class file. When the size of the byte code of a single method crosses 65536 bytes, the compiler is not able to compile that method, and gives “code too large” error for that particular method.
Now here is one thing to notice. The overall size of your class file can grow more than 65536 bytes, but the byte code for a single method should not be more than this. Notice that here I am getting this error for a method named largeMethod(), not for the whole file.
Now for the folks who want to try this by themselves. First thing is how would you generate such a large amount of code. Although there are some code generation tools like Groovy, but these are for large projects. To try it by yourselves, you can do what I did. Here is my code:

import java.io.*;

class WriteFile
{
public static void main(String args[])
{
BufferedWriter bw=null;
try{
File f= new File("LargeCode.java");
FileWriter fr= new FileWriter(f);
bw= new BufferedWriter(fr);
String s= "System.out.println(\"hello\");";
for(int i=0;i<10000;i++)
{
bw.write(s);
}

bw.close();
}
catch(Exception e) { }
}
}

Here I have generated a new file using java IO API. It writes the statement
System.out.println("hello");
10,000 times in a separate file. Now you can add other things (class name, method name) to compile the program. If you write the whole code in a single method and compile it, you will get the error.

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